Periodontal Diseases are a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the superficial and deeper tissue of the tooth;
- as the disturbance is limited to the gum, one speaks of gingivitis, an inflammation of the gums,
- while if the area underneath the condition is affected, it takes the name of periodontitis (or periodontitis).
These are disorders that, if neglected, can cause serious complications to the soft tissues and bones that support the teeth, until the final loss of one or more teeth.
A certain degree of inflammation of the gingival tissues can be found in a very high percentage of the population, especially adults, with more or less evident symptoms: For More Info Visit Help Receding Gums At Home
- bleeding during tooth brushing,
- bad breath.
The evolution of the disease depends largely on the individual's attention to oral hygiene and to the various factors that can influence the health of the mouth.
Our mouths are physiologically full of bacteria; all these micro-organisms, together with the mucus and other particles, constantly form a colorless patina firmly bonded to the teeth (plaque), which must be periodically removed through proper Oral Hygiene.
The plaque not removed can harden and form the "tartar", a substance that the only brushing is no longer able to remove, but that must be treated professionally by a dentist or a dental hygienist.
Excessive plaque production can develop into caries and gingival disorders.
The longer the plaque and tartar are left on the teeth, the more damage they can cause; the constant presence of bacteria can cause inflammation of the gums called "gingivitis".
This is a condition characterized by:
Gingival Recession is a mild form of periodontal disease, which can easily be cured with good oral hygiene and regular tooth cleaning by the dentist; in itself it is not a cause of tooth loss.
When gingivitis is not treated it can evolve to "periodontitis" (which literally means "inflammation around the tooth"); in this case the gums move away from the teeth causing the formation of spaces (sometimes called "pockets") that easily infect for their tendency to collect food residues, which will then be attacked by the bacteria present.
The body's immune system activates the bacteria responsible for plaque formation inside these pockets below the gingival protection, but bacterial toxins and the body's natural response to infection begin to attack the bone and tissue connective responsible for maintaining the teeth in position.
If the problem is not cured immediately, the bones, gums and tissue that supports the teeth are destroyed; the teeth lose stability and resistance and must be intentionally taken out.
- Insufficient oral hygiene.
- Smoke : Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of periodontal diseases and also reduces the effectiveness of available treatments.
- Hormonal changes in women: These fluctuations can make the gums more sensitive and prone to the development of gingivitis.
- Diabetes: People who have diabetes have a higher risk of forming infections, including gum infections.
- Other diseases and related therapies: Diseases such as AIDS and the drugs used to treat it can negatively affect gum health, as well as many anticancer therapies.
- Drugs. There are hundreds of drugs that have as a side effect the reduction of saliva production and this results in a greater vulnerability of the mouth to infections such as gingivitis and periodontitis.
- Genetic susceptibility: Most of the people are more inclined to severe gum disease compare to others.
The greatest spread of periodontal diseases is observed in subjects of at least 30-40 years, in particular among men.
In adolescents, the diagnosis of periodontitis is rare, while gingivitis, the mildest form of inflammation, can develop.
Smoke and gingival disorders
Smoking, among the various negative effects on the body, causes a weakening of the immune system, making it more difficult to react to the presence of an infection in the oral cavity: in other words, when a disorder, even a minor one, occurs, it is harder to heal.
It means that a smoker:
- there is a double risk of developing gum disease compared to the general population,
- the more cigarettes smoke, the greater the risk,
- the longer it smokes, the greater the risks,
- is associated with reduced efficacy of available therapies.
The characteristic symptoms of gingivitis are:
- warmth, redness and swelling of the gums,
- the tendency to bleeding during tooth cleaning.
Pain is very rarely present, except for a very rare variant of gingivitis, the necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, characterized by spontaneous pain and bleeding.
If gingivitis is neglected it can evolve into periodontitis, a condition characterized by a deeper inflammation that manifests itself with:
- unpleasant taste in the mouth,
- tooth migration and movement and related chewing difficulties,
- gingival abscess.
It is then possible to highlight the presence of periodontal pockets.
It should be noted that the characteristic symptoms of periodontitis only appear when the disease is already at an advanced stage, thereby delaying medical intervention and reducing the range of possibilities for the approach.
If left untreated, gingivitis can evolve to periodontitis, a condition that exposes the subject to the risk of serious complications:
- gingival retraction,
- increased mobility of the teeth,
- loss of teeth.
The presence of periodontal diseases has also been associated with an increased risk of many other diseases, such as:
- cardiovascular diseases,
- lung infections,
- complications related to pregnancy ( premature birth, for example).
However, it should be noted that the observation of this link derives from observational studies, therefore the link between gum disorder and systemic pathologies has not yet been clarified.
Care and remedies
The main objective of available treatment is to control and possibly prevent infection; the type of treatment varies depending on the extent of inflammation, but the staple of any treatment of periodontal diseases, be it gingivitis or periodontitis, is impeccable oral hygiene, which includes:
- Clean your teeth at least two times daily, with particular care to evening brushing,
- use of natural toothpaste,
- use dental floss (or brushes) before brushing your teeth,
- stop smoking,
- undergo periodic scaling and check-ups by the dentist.